Processing ofrockbasalt typesindifferent types of
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BASALT MANY FACES
Millions of years without change.
CHOICE OFRAW MATERIALSFOR THE PRODUCTION OFBASALT FIBERS FOR VARIOUS USES
According to the research, taking into account the properties of the rocks, we
have developed recommendations for the use of rock melts for the production of
specific types of fibers (see Table 1).
Classification of rock melts was made Makhova MF
et al., but has not been made to optimize the properties of melts of specific
species indicating the direction of their use.
We have found that the high viscosity of melts may obtain continuous fiber.
However, the process is characterized by the largest energy consumption and the
maximum wear assembly fiberization by its operation at elevated temperatures.
When using viscous melts continuous fiber production process is stable.
The manufacturing process of superfine fibers is the bushing at elevated
temperatures above 1360 ° C, which in turn has increased wear, the resulting
fiber satisfactory quality.
Group rocks with medium viscous melts are the most versatile raw material for
the production of all types of fibers.
The production process is continuous and super fine fiber runs from the lowest
Use ofrockfor the production ofdifferent types offibers
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Use ofraw material
Productionof continuous fibers
Manufacture of finestaple
melts almost unsuitable for the production of continuous filament due to the
narrow temperature range output.
Because the bulk of the species in this group is possible to obtain super thin
Fine fibers using melt of low viscosity is obtained with the lowest power
consumption, the amount of non-fiber components according TU.U B. 2.7-21-356-99
with an average diameter of less than 8 microns and a maximum average fiber
length of 15 mm.
The basis for producing a fiber with predetermined properties take a single
component raw material, rocks that have different chemical (Table. 2) and
mineralogical composition, such as andesite basalt, diabase, basalt and
amphibolites, which has large reserves of Ukraine.
The chemical composition of glass C taken for comparison of properties:
R2O3-2.2% (Al2O3 + Fe2O3);
CaO-6.5%; MgO-4.2%; Na2O-14.9%; SO3-0.3%.
Knowing the properties of each breed, we can adjusting additives of oxides in
the melt to produce fibers with the required characteristics. Technology for producing a particular type of fiber is mainly
dependent on the viscosity of rock melts in the range of development (Fig. 1).
The equations, depending on the temperature of the melt viscosity for different
η = 0,0504T2 -
144,19T + 103216 Andesitebasalts (3.1)
η = 0,0188T2 - 53,396T + 37946
η = 0,009T2 - 25,905T + 18622
η = 0,0036T2 - 10,368T + 7484,4
Dependingon the operating conditionsofbasalt fibersproduction, they
physicochemical andmechanical properties.Such propertiesinclude
tensile strength;chemical resistance toacids, alkalis andwater as
stability. The studiesdetermined thatfibers fromdifferent breedsare characterized by different
Temperature resistant mineral fiber depends on the presence of oxides in the
rock ratios increasing temperature resistance SiO2, Al2O3 and others lowering
When heated basalt fibers observed continuous change their content and at
certain temperatures - a complete transition of divalent iron to trivalent form
with the loss of thermal stability.
The fastest transition Fe2 + to Fe3 + BSTF fibers made from diabase and BTV, t.
E. In the fibers, wherein the content of Fe2 + is less than Fe3 +.
Just when drawing continuous fiber on the surface of the bulb formed oxide film
Fe3 +, due to ferrous iron capture oxygen from the air, which significantly
increases breakage and lowers the strength of the fiber.
To eliminate these drawbacks is necessary to create a protective atmosphere hood
assembly inert gases.
One important feature of the fibers is their resistance to
acids and alkalis (Fig. 3) because they are applied in various branches of the
filters, as a filter element for cleaning a variety of corrosive environments.
As can be seen from the figure, the most resistant to the acid are mineral
fibers obtained from andesite. Alkali resistance characterized by fiber obtained from melts
and diabase amfobolitov.
In the production of plastics based minerals plays an important role mechanical
tensile strength of the fiber (Fig. 4).
The diameter of the test fiber 12 microns, all the fibers produced in the same
As can be seen from the diagram the greatest strength characterized by fibers
produced from molten andesite.
Fig.3Stability offibers from rocksof acid(s),base (b):1-diabase,2basaltic andesites;3-basalts;4C-glass;5-amphibolites.
characteristicproperties of mineralfibers obtainedfrom variousrocks andis given in Table.3.This creates aprerequisite forcontrolof fiberquality
There are severalways tocontrolthe qualityof the resultingfiber.Thisselection ofraw material, maintaining a
rational parameters ofmelting modeand creation ofoptimal
conditions forcooling thestrands,whendrawingfrom the melt.
characteristicproperties of mineralfibersfrom differentrock
However,the main way ofgettingfiberwith predetermined
characteristicsis the selection ofthe appropriatechemical andmineral compositionof the
feedstock.The properties ofthe resultingfiberhas a greater influence
chemical composition.And on theeconomic performance of
producing the meltand the fibersgenerallymoreinfluenced bythe mineral
composition ofthe rock.
Production of continuous basalt fiber based on the melting in the furnace crushed basalt, followed by stretching of the resulting melt filaments. The formation of filaments through holes in the bushing....
At present, it has developed two directions of creation of composite materials:
- Composites high modulus fibers (steel, asbestos, glass, basalt);
- Composites low modulus fibers (nylon, polyethylene, polypropylene ....