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NEW TECHNOLOGY PRODUCTION CBF
Innovative equipment and technology solutions manufacturing continuous basalt fiber
He had long been in the service of man.
ENGINEERING DESIGN PRODUCTION CBF
Projects of manufactures basalt continuous fibers adapted to local conditions.
RESEARCH OF ROCKS
Determination of suitability for production of basalt continuous fibers
Basalt fiberreinforced concrete
Along with the widespread
use of reinforced concrete
special attention, in our
opinion, deserve composite
materials, in which the role
of the matrix performs the
cement stone produced based
on Portland cement, as well
as valves, various mineral
and polymer fibers, and
metal mesh and chips. Fibers provide three-dimensional reinforcement of the concrete as compared to
traditional valves, which
provides a two-dimensional
reinforcement. Currently, you can add two directions of creation of composite materials: - Composites high modulus fibers (steel, asbestos, glass, basalt); - Composites low modulus fibers (nylon, polyethylene, polypropylene, etc.).
Each composite reinforcing
materials have different
disadvantages, but most
composites using as a
reinforcing material of
Artificial stone, porous materials (concrete), are characterized by low
resistance to tearing and shrinkage cracks during curing.
One significant disadvantage of such products is the destruction of the angles
Avoid the formation of cracks and chips possible in several ways, such as
secondary reinforcement wire mesh or rebar, welded wire.
But the most effective method of modifying cementitious mixtures basalt,
polypropylene and metal fibers.
It solves the problems associated with the use of weld fittings in the ceiling,
which saves on metal.
Thus the polypropylene fiber when replacing a welded wire mesh to prevent the
formation of cracks in the structure and increases its bending strength of more
If a certain percentage of fiber in the mixture, it replaces the secondary
reinforcement and provides flexibility, but does not replace structural steel
Along with this, the polypropylene fiber has drawbacks: it is deformed at low
stress in tension, loses its properties with time and burns when exposed to open
Concrete structure using basalt fibers approaching structure with reinforcement
with steel mesh, but basalt concrete has a higher strength, because its
reinforcing basalt fiber has a higher degree of dispersion in the rock to be
reinforced, the fiber itself has a higher strength than the steel mesh.
Basalt concrete structures can withstand a lot of stress deformation, due to the
fact that the very fiber tensile plastic deformation has not, as of elasticity
The relative deformation of cement stone without cracks up to 0.9 - 1.1%.
Such deformation in 45-55 times higher than the limit elongation of reinforced
However, the hardening of the cement stone formed an aggressive environment that
destroys the fiber surface, forming a shell, and the strength of the fiber
decreases slightly to 15%.
But due to the strength of coupling shells stone and fiber increases and thus
increases the strength of the structure itself.
When using the coarse fibers (40 microns), their strength does not substantially
decrease. Increasing the strength of cement is due to the effect of basalt fiber on
stress concentration in places weakened by structural defects or increased
porosity (in the foam materials).
Fibers made from chemically inert rocks do not react with the salts or dyes and
because binding fiber admixture with additives can be used during the
construction of offshore structures in the manufacture of architectural building
designs with complex surfaces, decorative concrete.
In the production of pavements using basalt fiber asphalt coating protects it
from penetration of anti antiice
salts and aggressive substances, increases surface hardness.
Basalt fiber diameter of
18-60 microns is practically
does not change its strength
at long-term (up to one
month) stays in the
The strength of the thinner
fibers in the same
conditions, is gradually
The intensity of the loss of
strength increases with
decreasing fiber diameter.
This situation was also
confirmed in the work (12).
According to the author, the diameter of the basalt fiber should be in the
aisles of 40 - 200 microns,
with a length of sections 10
- 20 mm, and its tensile
strength up to 1500 MPa.
Stay basalt fiber for 6
hours in an environment of
concrete hardening, heated
to a temperature of 96 C,
and then holding for 45
hours at normal temperature
does not lead to significant
changes in the strength
properties of the fiber.
Under the same conditions,
glass fiber loses its
The studies found that the
addition to the cement
matrix of basalt fibers
To increase the compressive strength of the samples at 30 - 40%; - To increase the strength of the axial tension in three - four times; - To increase the toughness of the composite in 3 - 4 times.
The strength of composite articles depends on the degree of embedment of the
reinforcing fibers in the cement matrix.
In theory, the strength of the composite increases with increasing content in
However, the reinforcing properties of the concrete matrix with increasing
amounts of fibers are reduced.
When the volume of the fiber tends to 1, the volume of the cement matrix tends
to 0, and the strength of the composite will also be zero.
Therefore, there is a certain ratio of the fiber and the matrix in which the
matrix can provide the maximum degree of embedment of the fibers. According to some researchers optimum amount of basalt fibers in the composite
should be 20% by weight of cement (9, 10, 12).
The length of the sections of continuous basalt fiber on the one hand determined
by the terms of a uniform distribution of the fibers in the cement matrix (too
long fiber promotes the formation of tangled fibers in the form of "hedgehogs")
and short fibers worsen the degree of reinforcement of the cement matrix.
In this regard, the optimum length of cut taken in the aisles 10-20mm.
Preparation of fiber cement
mixture on the basis of
basalt fiber - the most
important operation in the
technology of fiber
mixtures, as the most
important factor in ensuring
the stability of their
properties, a uniform
distribution of basalt
fibers by volume of the
mixture. The most suitable method is vibro extrusion, using which provides uniform
incorporation of the fibers
into the concrete matrix. The paper (12) on the basis of generalization of domestic and foreign
formulated effective use of
basalt fiber as a
reinforcing material: - For the perception of the main tensile and shear stresses instead the core
of shear reinforcement; - To reduce the length of the working valves of the possibility of failure in
the continuation of its area
decreasing the bending
moment due to the increased
strength of adhesion with
the valve stem to reduce a
length of the
- To reduce the flow
distribution valve and a
elements, in which a large
part is assigned to the
reinforcement of the design
considerations and concrete
cover thickness is a
significant part of the
element. Also given the application of composite materials based on basalt fiber: - In the designs, which are increased requirements for stiffness and crack; - In buildings experiencing the impact of shock and alternating loads; - In thin-walled design and construction of complex geometric shapes; - When itinerant reinforcing the most stressed parts of structures; - In designs, transverse reinforcement which is intended mainly for the
perception of installation
and transport of loads;
- In the designs, which are
increased requirements for
frost resistance, water
resistance, abrasion and
thermal shock resistance.
In NIISK Construction Committee of Ukraine, Kiev, developed specific technology
for preparation of concrete, reinforced with basalt fibers (bazaltofibrobeton).
Proposed manufacturing technology with traditional technological schemes and
equipment, special feed lines basalt fiber into the mixer with the required
sealing of the mix on the shaking table without deep vibration.
Scope of the new composite material: flat and thin-walled products, bulk items,
rings, tubes, plates facing channels and silage trenches, road and paving slabs,
elements of permanent formwork, wall panels, building foundations, and others.
At the same time saving the metal fittings on certain types product is 80 to 100%. Despite such clear advantages of the composite material, its production did
not come out of the stage of development work, due to the absence of large-scale
production technology sections of continuous basalt fiber as raw material for
the production of concrete products.
This technology developed by JSC "Mineral 7" Yavoriv, Lviv region.
In making the fiber instead of the traditional platinum-rhodium bushing
installation on the applied bushing alloy, which ensures a
low temperature gradient of the area of fiber.
Previously used reels of the "NAS" are replaced with the original design of the
device with a semi-automatic threading.
Which will increase the hourly production of the fiber due to the number of
chemical composition ofthe rocksprocessed.
Physical and mechanical
properties of the
Table 2. Table
Physical and mechanical
properties of thefibers
Strength limit Tensile, MPa
The dynamic modulusof elasticity,
The test resultsof applicationsegmentsof fiberdiameter30-60microns and alength of 5 to15mm.The fiber contentof 0.2%in the concrete.
3. Патент Англии, Кл. С1М,/СО4в 15/00, СО3с3/04, №1307357, опубл.
4. Смирнов Б.И., Зацепин К.С. и др. О стойкости стеклянных
волокон в щелочных агрессивных средах. В кн. Специальные материалы для
строительства объектов нефтяной и газовой промышленности. М. Стройиздат. 1978.
5. Комлон К. Удобоукладываемость бетонных смесей, армированных
волокном. М. Стройиздат , 1088.
6. Патент Англии, Кл. С1М, Д2ВР2Р, (С04в31/06),№100732, опубл.
7. Пащенко А. А., Сербин В.П., Бондарь В.Р. Стеклоцементные
композиционные материалы. Киев, 1979.
8. Петросян С.Т. Технология изготовления строительных изделий с
использованием штапельного базальтового волокна. Диссертация на соискание ученой
степени кандидата технических наук. Ереван, 1988.
9. Ма9. Махова М. Ф., Гребенюк Н. П. Дисперсное армирование
портландцемента базальтовыми волокнами «Цемент», № 2 1980.
10. Крылов Б. Н. Фибробетон и его свойства. Обзор. Вып.4. М.
11. бетон и его применение в строительстве. М. НИИНБ. 1979.
12. Колбаско Э. Б. Прочность, трещенностойкость и деформативность
изгибаемых базальтофибробетонных и комбинированно армированных элементов.
Production of continuous basalt fiber based on the melting in the furnace crushed basalt, followed by stretching of the resulting melt filaments. The formation of filaments through holes in the bushing....
At present, it has developed two directions of creation of composite materials:
- Composites high modulus fibers (steel, asbestos, glass, basalt);
- Composites low modulus fibers (nylon, polyethylene, polypropylene ....