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Projects of manufactures basalt continuous fibers adapted to local conditions.
RESEARCH OF ROCKS
Determination of suitability for production of basalt continuous fibers
Some aspects of thetechnological process of
Production of continuousbasalt fiberbased onmeltingin themelting aggregatecrushedbasalt,followedby stretchingofthe resulting meltfilaments.The formation offilamentsthroughholes in thebushing.Thus, despite the
variety of physicalprocesses occurring inthe formation ofthe fibernode,the determining
factor isthe process of meltingof basaltto produce a melt.
The process ofproducinga basaltmeltis usually regardedas a process ofmeltinga heterogeneous system,which consists of severalphysicallyhomogeneoussilicatemineral compounds,which
are representedin the form of
crystaland glass.In general,
connection with whichthe processesof formation ofbasaltic meltcan be appliedtheories and
hypothesesof formation ofthe
Thus,all the hypothesestolerance ofhigh polymerglass,aperiodic, but, nevertheless,is not devoidof certainorderedmicrodomainscarcass.Thisstructuralframeformedby polyhedraas infiniteanionradicalsthe adjustablewindowlocatedin the forceelectric fieldmodifiercations.
The hypothesis of thecrystalliteglassstructuresince its inceptionand to datehas undergone some changes.The study ofthe structure ofvarious glassesclearlyrevealsthe microheterogeneity oftheir structure.It followsthat the actualglasscomposed ofan orderedpart ofthe crystallitesandnotordered
agreethat the structureisamorphouscrystalliteglass
temperature ofthe melt,the meltholding timeat temperaturesabove the
crystallization temperature, the presence
in the composition ofalkali metal cations,
the effect ofthe electromagnetic field,
the presenceof strong
presenceof mineralmemoryallowsto assume thatin the glass structure, suchconnectionis notstrongas that ofthe crystallinebody, italso confirmsless chemicalresistance of the glassas compared
to samplesof the same compositionof the crystal structure.
Based on a study of the glass melt basalt produced in different temperature
conditions, it was found that a decrease in the rate of cooling glass of its
chemical resistance increased and decreased strength.
When the temperature of the melt preparation obtained an inverse relationship.
By increasing the dwell time of the melt at a certain temperature above the
crystallization temperature dependence remains.
Also a significant factor affecting the properties of the resulting glasses is
the electromagnetic treatment of the melt, which allows users to secure the
effect of the destruction of mineral memory and obtain high strength glass.
An important factor when working with glass from rock is that the melt with no
destruction of mineral memory may restore structural mineralogical composition
of the crystalline body, when the cooling process is to conduct a low speed
shutter and at certain temperatures.
This suggests a partial confirmation of the crystallite hypothesis.
The process of formingthe moltenbasaltoccursat temperatures ranging from1720to1535Kat
a temperatureupper limit of
these temperatures aredifferentfor different types ofbasalt raw
materialto be processed.In this regard,settingintervalstemperatureis one of thebasic elements ofa process controlandpreparationof the meltbasaltcontinuous fiberwith desired properties.
The process of forming fibers from the melt through a spinneret determined by
the viscosity of glass and its character changes depending on the temperature,
size of the upper limit of crystallization, its velocity, as well as surface
Basalt melts suitable for producing continuous fiber must be characterized by a
low crystallization rate .
If the tendency to melt crystallization is large, the process must be conducted
at a higher temperature than that which corresponds to the desired viscosity,
which leads to additional technical problems.
If the glass has a low crystallization rate, then it is possible to form fibers,
and in the case when the temperature corresponds to the temperature
crystallization production or even below it.
of basalt glass should have a relatively wide range of output, i.e. the
temperature range in which the technological properties of the glass, primarily
the viscosity values are defined and can not be drastically altered.
Basalt glass having a wide range of development, does not require careful
control of the temperature, and the process of developing more stable.
For a stable process is necessary that the difference between the final and
initial temperatures generation was about 100K.
Impact on theglass-formingcomponents ofhigh temperaturesleads to theirmodification,creation of newlinks andthe formation ofthe glass structure.These factorsgreatlyaffect the characteristics ofthe
the holding timeof the melt
in the environment ofhigh
temperature and thecooling of the meltin the process ofproducingcontinuous fibercan effectivelycontrol the quality ofthe final
the temperatureeffects onraw
materialsimportant factor in
producinghigh qualityfiberis also thechoice of theraw materials.Its chemical
temperature conditionsobtaining the melt,
its characteristicsand ultimatelythe qualityof the manufactured
As noted above, based on production of continuous basalt fiber technology
incorporated mechanical drawing filaments from the melt.
This technology is currently being implemented in two ways, which differ only in
the hardware design process.
The first method determines the use of small furnace units modular (modular
technology) with the possibility of establishing in the furnace unit of one, two
slotted bushings or plates.
The second method determines the use of a lot bushmng (many bushing
furnace units with installation of jet and bushing in an amount of from 6 to 12
The main producers of basalt continuous fibers develop their production in these
Table 1 lists some characteristics of basalt fiber produced by different
manufacturers as a modular, so much bushing technology.
Tuoxim Science &
Shanghai Russia Gold
Basalt Fiber, Китай,
Россия, г. Дубна*
Россия, г. Судогда*
Co., Ltd., Китай
Modular technology is characterized by relatively low initial capital
investment, the ability to quickly introduce production capacity and smooth
operation of production facilities.
The main advantage, in our view, is that the modular furnace can be displayed
one by one mode and shut down each individual furnace alone without significant
influence on the process in other furnaces, and production volumes.
Starting and output mode of the modular kiln takes place within 3-4 days.
The disadvantages of themodular
technologyisthe relativelylowquality of thefiber.This is due tothe small area ofthe tank furnace,which significantly reduces thetime
of themeltphasedegassing andhomogenization.The fiber obtainedbythis techniqueis not much betterglass-basedE-glass.Furthermore, the amountof wastewhenthis technologyis about 40%.
The main advantages of mnogopostovoy technology is the stability of the
technological process of basalt fiber, which by its characteristics is close to
the quality characteristics of fibers derived from S-glass.
This is primarily achieved considerable size bath furnace that maximize
amorphous melt, which is achieved by increasing the holding time of the melt at
a certain temperature, and almost complete elimination of the crystals.
Also used in the process contribute to an increase in jet feeders the melt
ductility, neutralizing the electric field ion bonds of cations and anions.
Figure 1 shows the impact on the glass structure of the electromagnetic field
through its impact on the relationship between the individual entities that make
up the melt.
In the upper part of the figure shows the glass melt without processing the
electromagnetic field. It has large crystal
the bottom of the glass, too, when the magnetic treatment of the melt.
As you can see, crystal size decreased significantly and there was disorder in
the melt distribution of the constituent elements.
It was found that the strength of the fiber obtained from such a melt by 20%
higher than the strength of the fiber obtained from untreated.
The dwell timeof the melt inthe furnacea lotbushingunit
(depending on theprocess,the passage ofbasaltfrom loadinginto the furnacetoproduce
fiber is14 to 18hours)thatallows you toalmost completelyreduce the impact
the spinning process.According to the
researchthe dependence(Fig.2)the strength ofbasalt fiberfrom thedwell timeof the meltat a temperature of1720K
strength of the fibers was determined according to GOST 6943.10-79 with minor
Upon exposure of 4 to 8 hours a dissolution of magnetite ore and other minerals,
as well as tourmaline and mica.
More difficult to dissolve quartz, pyroxene, etc.. And breaks into pyroxene and
olivine crystals of silica.
Olivine partially composed of forsterite having a melting point 2170K, but under
the influence of fluxing the melt with time dissolves.
The most intensive dissolution of the crystals are within 14 hours.
In the future, the system is gradually coming to equilibrium.
Confirmed that the same relative strength of the resulting fiber by exposing a
melt of 14 to 24 hours.
It gives a vivid picture of the structure of glasses obtained at different
exposure time (Fig. 3).
In the upper part of the figure represented basaltic glass melt delayed for 2
hours at a temperature of 17200K.
There are clearly visible large crystals that did not dissolve.
In the lower part of the figure is represented by the glass, the resulting melt
allowed to stand for 14 hours. As can
be seen from the figure, the particle size decreased significantly.
structure of theglassmeltfrombasalt
afterexposure at17200K.2:00upper part, the
lower part14 hours.
The fibersproduced from the meltprepared in amodular technologyhave bothlarge crystalsandcrystallitesFig.4.
continuous fiber: A
Under microscopic examination,the
that the cross sectionof fiberhas a plurality ofdifferentplanes ofFigure5a.
cross-sectionof the fiber.
The fiber obtained by melt exposure over 14 hours on the cross-section is only a
few planes, that is, the gap is going according to the fluctuation theory of
strength of glass  (Fig. 5b).
This is yet another confirmation of the many benefits bushing technology.
Another advantage of it is that with appropriate design of hardware and
qualified service personnel process of obtaining continuous filaments is
virtually without interruption. No faults and
replacement of components of fiber.
The design of the furnace unit allows three years without a major overhaul of
Start time heating unit and the output mode is about seven days.
The amount of waste in the work of this technology is less than 5%.
tothe conclusionsmade by
Conclusions: 1. Despite the abundance of glass formation of hypotheses, many authors agree
that the structure of the
glass is amorphous
crystallite. 2. Impact on the glass forming components to high temperatures and
electromagnetic field leads
to modification, creating
new bonds, and forming the
glass structure, which
significantly affect the
characteristics of the melt. 3. Changing Melting range, the holding time of the melt in the environment of
high temperature and the
cooling of the melt in the
process of producing
continuous fiber can
effectively control the
quality of the final
4. On the basis of the
analysis compared the two
methods of production of
basalt fiber. It is shown that a high-quality basalt fiber is only possible by using
1.Лебедев А. А. Труды совещания по
строению стекла Строение стекла. М.; Л.: Издательство АН СССР. 1955 С.
2.Белов Н. В. Структура ионных кристаллов
и металлических фаз. М., 1947 с. 235.
3.Бут Ю.М., Дудеров Г.Н., Матвеев М.А.
Общая технология силикатов
Ц М.: Госстройиздат, 1962. Ц с. 299.
4.Ботвинкин О. К. Стеклообразное состояние.
Ч М.; Л.: Изд. АН СССР, 1965.
стекла Ц М.: Госстройиздат, 1979.Ц с.256.
Production of continuous basalt fiber based on the melting in the furnace crushed basalt, followed by stretching of the resulting melt filaments. The formation of filaments through holes in the bushing....
At present, it has developed two directions of creation of composite materials:
- Composites high modulus fibers (steel, asbestos, glass, basalt);
- Composites low modulus fibers (nylon, polyethylene, polypropylene ....