Processing ofrockbasalt typesindifferent types of
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He had long been in the service of man.
BASALT MANY FACES
Millions of years without change.
CHEMICAL RESISTANCE BASALT
FIBERS FOR CONCRETE
Artificial stone materials (concrete), are characterized by low resistance to
tearing and shrinkage cracks during solidification.
Eliminate the formation of cracks in several ways, for example, a secondary
reinforcement, which is carried out in structural concrete steel reinforcement,
and in slabs - or welded wire mesh modifying binder using polypropylene, glass,
basalt fibers, metal fibers. The latter method is more
It eliminates the structural problems associated with the use of welded wire
reinforcement in the ceiling, and also solves the problem of its location and
allows you to save on the purchase of metal.
For example, the polypropylene fiber may replace welded wire mesh that prevents
the formation of shrinkage cracks in the concrete. In
plate comprising fiber bending strength to 2% higher.
At a certain dosing fiber replaces the secondary reinforcement and provides the
plasticity of concrete, but does not replace structural steel reinforcement.
The main properties of the fibers as secondary reinforcement - is to control the
subsidence and the formation of plastic shrinkage cracks.
In addition the use of concrete with fiber reinforcement inherent properties
such as uniform protrusion of water, high resistance to abrasion, chipping and
shock effects, low permeability, high durability under conditions of freezing
and thawing, chemical inertness and high grip.
However, the polypropylene fiber has drawbacks. It
deformed even with small tensile loads, it is aging, i.e. lose their properties
over time, so as it burns when exposed to open flame. These
drawbacks are absent in the application of basalt fiber.
The structure of concrete with basalt fibers (bazaltotsementa) close to the
structure, with the ferrocement reinforcement steel meshes.
However bazaltotsement has a higher strength and deformability, as
reinforcing its basalt provides a higher degree of dispersion reinforcement
basalt stone itself has a higher strength of 1800 - 2500 MPa than steel mesh.
Furthermore, bazaltotsement can tolerate large elastic deformations, because
basalt fiber tensile plastic strain does not have, and on the elasticity than
Hardening cement paste is formed hostile environment that destroys the surface
of the fiber, forming a shell.
Fiber strength is decreased by 10%, but at the expense of adhesive strength of
the formed shells stone and fibers increases so the strength of the product
increases. When using thicker fibers (bolee100mkm.) Does
not change their strength. Made
of rock, basalt fiber does not react with the salts or dyes, so concrete
solutions with the addition of fiber can also be used in the construction of
offshore structures and architectural and decorative concrete.
The pavements fiber protects concrete reinforcement from penetration antiice
salts and aggressive substances, and increases residual strength and resistance
to freeze-thaw cycles, increases the surface roughness.
Use of high-quality concrete with special additives including mono fiber
reinforcement provides resistance to fall to temperatures protecting against
faults, cracks and flaking surfaces eliminates plastic and shrinkage cracks and
increases the durability of the surface, edges and a seam, as well as resistance
to abrasion and impact, provides early compressive strength, i.e. the strength which conventional concrete acquires
only after 28 days from the time of installation.
Bazaltotsementa main features are its high strength in all types of stress
states and the ability to carry large deformations in the elastic state.
The relative deformation of cement stone without cracking up 0.7 - 0.9%. Such deformation in 35-45 times more than the ultimate elongation reinforced
cement stone, a significant increase in the deformability and strength of cement
is by eliminating the effect of basalt fiber stress concentrations in areas
weakened by structural defects of the cement stone (sinks, cracks and the like).
The most significant effect of basalt fiber reinforced concrete beams found in
without transverse reinforcement.
Thus, the bearing capacity of the inclined cross-sections of beams without
stirrups is increased by 45% with an increase in the percentage of basalt fiber
from 10 to 12.5% and 84% compared to the same period beams without particulate
In the presence of shear reinforcement influence disperse reinforcement
The bearing capacity of the inclined cross-sections in combination with basalt
fiber reinforced beams is increased by 8-10% .
At the same time the load-crack formation is increased by 20-30% and the opening
width of dipping fractures under loads of 0.5-0,6 breaking decreases by 1.5-2
Analysis of the results of the tests showed that the use of rough basalt fibers
in the most expedient designs, which set the clamps on the design requirements.
This is achieved 100% reduction in consumption of steel that goes to the
transverse reinforcement. In designs that include clamps, based on the requirements of crack resistance,
the use of particulate reinforcement allows to reduce the opening width of
oblique fractures and partly to reduce the consumption of transverse
When using basalt fiber in an amount of 40% strength cementitious products from
izvestkovoshlakovogo bending is 20 MPa, the compressive-69 MPa.
It is found that the phase of the cement stone compound, fiber reinforced,
different from the reference.
The total content of substances larger in cementitious composites.
There is an increased concentration of tumors along the fiber reinforcements.
And in reinforced cement stone hydrate phase predominantly formed in the
crystalline state and echinated form that confirmed research by other authors
There were conducted tests to determine the strength of continuous basalt fiber.
Measure the diameter of the fibers was conducted in accordance with GOST
Experimental results stay basalt fiber synthetic hardening Portland cement
liquid phase under normal conditions are shown in Table 1. In order to increase
the accuracy of the experiment fibers are treated with a hot mixture of Ca (OH)
2 (Table. 2). Results of testing samples of basalt fiber reinforced cement are given in
The experimental results support the use of continuous basalt fibers as well as
coarse fibers as reinforcing admixtures in concrete mixtures for construction.
The smaller the diameter of the basalt fiber, the greater the decrease in its
strength in the cement environment. This
occurs most rapidly over 3-6 months. The
process of reducing the strength of a general nature of fading. The highest level of strength loss observed in alyumoborsilikatnih fibers
consumed in the concrete reinforcement. 
Possible areas of application of basalt fiber: concrete floors, airport runways,
high-speed highways, industrial floors in workshops where established heavy
equipment, internal reinforcement of tunnels and canals, slope reinforcement,
repair and reconstruction of buildings, the coating of metal surfaces of steel
structures, concrete water channels,
fire-retardant construction, military facilities, and the construction of
The main advantages of reinforced concrete with basalt fibers: reducing the
thickness of the concrete layer in half compared to conventional concrete,
respectively, the total construction cost, reducing labor costs associated with
the installation of wire mesh in the sewers and underground water channels, the
thickness of the concrete coating significantly reduced, decreasing the cost of
and maintenance thanks to the durability of fiber reinforced concrete.
Effect on concrete reinforcement basalt fiber depends on its length and the
ratio of length to diameter.
Theoretically longer fibers and with large length to diameter ratio better than
However, the long fibers are more difficult to put in the gunning concrete, and
they are distributed to the worst concrete.
Fibers provide three-dimensional reinforcement of the concrete as compared to
traditional valves, which provides a two-dimensional reinforcement.
According to years of research NDІBK, durability rough basalt fibers in the
environment of a cement stone is at least a hundred years. 
Table 1 The strength ofbasalt fiberafter being ina syntheticliquid phasePortland
Treatment time, hour.
The diameter of thebasalt fiber,micron
Tensile strength, MPa
2 The strength ofbasalt fibertearwhen
Treatment time, hour.
The diameter of thebasalt fiber,micron
Tensile strength, MPa
Reinforcement ratioby weight, %
Tensile strengthsamplesbending, MPa
The fibersare notamenable toelectrochemical corrosion,in contrast toconventionalvalves whichis an electricalconductor and thecathodegives ineffect.
А.С., Сулейменов С.Т., Естемесов З.А. и др. Композиционные материалы на
основе вяжущих. Киев, АН УССР ИПМ ,1991. С.21.
Рабинович Ф.Н., Зуева В.Н., Макеева Л.В. Стойкость базальтовых
волокон в среде гидратирующих цементов.// Стекло и керамика. 2001.№12
Production of continuous basalt fiber based on the melting in the furnace crushed basalt, followed by stretching of the resulting melt filaments. The formation of filaments through holes in the bushing....
At present, it has developed two directions of creation of composite materials:
- Composites high modulus fibers (steel, asbestos, glass, basalt);
- Composites low modulus fibers (nylon, polyethylene, polypropylene ....